Internet Services - Explained

Welcome to a guide on the services of the internet. Discover the diverse range of online offerings that shape our digital world, connecting us through communication, commerce, entertainment, and much more. Explore the various services that make the internet an integral part of our lives.

The internet provides a wide range of services. Here are some of the most common internet services:

  • Communication Services(E-mail, VoIP, etc.)
  • Directory Services
  • Network Management Services
  • Time Services
  • Data Retrieval Services
  • World Wide Web
  • E-commerce(Online Shopping)
  • Web Services
  • Automatic Network Address Configuration (ANAC)
  • Search Engines
  • Remote desktop software
  • Cloud Computing
  • Online Gaming
  • Online Banking
  • Online Education (E-learning)

Let's take a look at each of them.

Communication Services

Communication services are needed for people and groups to share data and information. The following are examples of frequent communication services:

  • Voice over Internet Protocol(VoIP)
  • Video Conferencing
  • E-mail
  • FTP(File Transfer Protocol)
  • SFTP (Secure File Transfer Protocol)
  • FTPS (FTP over SSL/TLS)
  • WebDAV (Web Distributed Authoring and Versioning)
  • Instant Messaging (IM)
  • Social Media
  • Online Forums
  • Blogging
  • Podcasting
  • SMS (Short Message Service)
  • Online Chat
  • User Network (USENET)
  • IRC (Internet Relay Chat)
  • Telnet
  • remote desktop software
  • List Server (LISTSERV)
  • Electronic Fax (E-FAX)

Let's learn more about these communication services.

Voice over Internet Protocol(VoIP)

Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) is a technology that allows users to make voice calls and send text messages via the internet. It transforms analog voice signals into digital data that may be broadcast in real-time via the internet.

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VoIP is an alternative to traditional phone systems, which send voice signals through circuit-switched networks. In contrast to traditional phone systems, VoIP employs packet-switched networks to transport data, which can give substantial cost savings and flexibility.

There are various ways to utilize VoIP, including dedicated VoIP phones, computer software, and mobile applications. SkypeWhatsAppZoom, and Google Meet are four well-known VoIP services.

Advantages of VoIP -

  • Cost reductions are one of the key benefits of VoIP. VoIP can be substantially less expensive than traditional phone networks, especially for international and long-distance calls.
  • VoIP offers greater flexibility in call routingforwarding, and voicemail management.

Video conferencing, instant messaging, and screen sharing are services not available with traditional phone systems but with VoIP. VoIP is especially advantageous for firms working with remote teams or clients.

However, VoIP has several limits, especially regarding call quality and dependability.

  • Internet speed, network congestion, and hardware quality can all impact the quality of VoIP calls.
  • Selecting a dependable VoIP service provider and guaranteeing that your network can support VoIP calls of good quality is essential.

Video Conferencing

Video conferencing is a technology that enables internet-based live meetings and conferences. Video conferencing combines audio and visual communication to enable users, not in the same physical place with a real-timeface-to-face experience.

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There are numerous applications for video conferencing, including business meetingsremote workonline learning, and telemedicine. It is accessible via multiple devices, including computers, tablets, and mobile phones.

Some of the key features of video conferencing include:

  • Video and Audio: Video conferencing allows participants to see and hear each other in real time, using cameras and microphones.
  • Screen Sharing:  Screen sharing enables participants to share their computer screens with others, which is useful when presenting documents, slideshows, or videos.
  • Recording: Several video conferencing platforms allow users to record their meetings and conferences, which can be valuable for later review or for those unable to join the live meeting.
  • Chat: Video conferencing solutions typically offer a chat component, allowing participants to exchange text messages throughout the meeting.
  • Virtual Backgrounds: Several video conferencing services enable users to select virtual backgrounds, which can help maintain the privacy or achieve a more professional appearance.

The following are the modes of Video Conferencing -

  • Point-to-Point: This kind of Video Conferencing links only two locations.
internet point to point video conferencing
  • Multi-point: This style of conferencing utilizes Multi-point Control Unit (MCU) to connect more than two places.
internet multipoint video conferencing

ZoomMicrosoft TeamsGoogle MeetSkype, and Cisco Webex are examples of standard video conferencing solutions. In recent years, video conferencing has gained popularity due to the rise of remote work and the need for virtual communication during the COVID-19 pandemic.


E-mail (electronic mail) is a service that enables users to send and receive messages and attachments via the internet. It is one of the oldest and most commonly used internet-based communication platforms.

E-mail functions by permitting users to create a unique e-mail address. The components of an e-mail address are a username and a domain name (for example, Next, users can send messages to other e-mail addresses by entering the recipient's address, creating a message, and pressing the send button.

Internet - e-mail

Advantages of E-mail -

  • Most e-mail services provide various functions, such as spam filtering, folders for organizing messages, and the capacity to create and maintain contacts.
  • Textphotosvideos, and attachments such as documents and spreadsheets can be included in e-mail messages. Also, they can be formatted with various fonts, colors, and styles. 
  • It is a paperless method for Internet-based transmission of data.
  • E-mail is typically faster and more dependable than traditional postal services, enabling users to send and receive communications in real-time. 
  • It enables users to send messages to anyone, anywhere in the world, with an e-mail account and internet connection.
  • Furthermore, the same e-mail can be sent to several recipients.

E-mail is used for several purposes, including personal and corporate communication, marketing, and newsletters. GoogleOutlookYahoo! Mail, and ProtonMail are examples of popular e-mail services.

FTP(File Transfer Protocol)

FTP (File Transfer Protocol) is a protocol used to transfer files between computers over the internet. It is one of the oldest and most extensively used Internet file-transfer communication services.

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FTP works by establishing a connection between two computers: a client computer and a server computer. The client sends requests to the server to retrieve or upload files, and the server grants access to the requested files.

FTP supports various file transfer modes, such as ASCII mode for text files and binary mode for non-text data, such as images, audio, and video. FTP also provides file management capabilities, including creatingrenaming, and deleting files and directories.

Many secure file transfer protocols have been created to address this security issue, such as SFTP (Secure File Transfer Protocol) and FTPS (FTP over SSL/TLS). These protocols employ encryption to safeguard data in transit, making them a more secure alternative to standard FTP.

From the perspective of communication services, FTP is a dependable and efficient method for transferring huge files between computers via the internet. This can be handy for businesses or people transferring significant volumes of data, such as media files or software applications.

Benefits of FTP -

  • It is a connection-oriented protocol that employs powerful control commands, making it simple to install and use.
  • The data is transmitted over a different TCP connection from the control commands. This facilitates rapid data transfer.
  • It is widely utilized due to its general applicability and consistency.
  • Using FTP, users of any operating system (Windows, Linux, etc.) can easily connect to the server.

As an online communication service, FTP has various potential disadvantages. One issue is that FTP transfers are not always secure, as FTP does not encrypt data in transit. This indicates that sensitive information may be intercepted and accessed by unauthorized people.

Drawbacks of FTP -

  • FTP has a high delay(latency) due to its connection-oriented design.
  • There are numerous active TCP/IP connections. A firewall restricts the utilization of these connections.
  • Active mode Filtering FTP traffic on the client side is problematic when a firewall exists.
  • Date/timestamp attribute transfers are not supported.
  • FTP requires more memory and programming effort.

These are some of the tools on FTP Servers -

  • Archie
  • Gopher

Let's learn about them.


Archie, a pioneering search engine from 1990, was a crucial tool for locating files on FTP servers. It allowed keyword-based searches and enabled users to swiftly retrieve files from various servers, benefiting researchers and academics. Despite its obsolescence, Archie played a significant role in shaping modern search engines.


Gopher, a protocol predating the World Wide Web, organized internet information through menus. Although it became overshadowed by the Web's emergence, Gopher's simplicity and efficiency made it popular. However, its limitations in displaying multimedia content hindered its continued use.

VERONICA(Very Easy Rodent Oriented Netwide Index to Computer Achieved)

VERONICA, developed in 1992 alongside Gopher, assisted users in finding Gopher-based files. While limited to Gopher servers, it played a role in search evolution. Its influence, like Archie and Gopher, remains despite being supplanted by modern search engines.

Secure File Transfer Protocol (SFTP)

Secure File Transfer Protocol (SFTP) is used to transfer files between computers over the internet securely. It is a secure alternative to FTP (File Transfer Protocol). It encrypts data in transit.

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SFTP establishes a secure link between a client and a server, enabling file retrieval or uploads. It uses SSH for encryption, ensuring safe data transfer. In communication, SFTP is a trusted method for secure data exchange, aiding entities with sensitive information needs.

With user authentication, encrypted transit, and integrity checks, SFTP ensures secure and reliable file transfer. Its significance lies in safeguarding data during transmission, benefiting organizations and maintaining data confidentiality, integrity, and availability.


FTPS (FTP over SSL/TLS) is a protocol for transferring files securely between computers over the internet. It is a secure alternative to FTP (File Transfer Protocol) that encrypts data in transit.

FTPS establishes a secure connection between a client and a server for file exchange. It deploys SSL or TLS encryption for data security. As a communication service, FTPS is reliable for secure data transfer, aiding large-scale transactions, and safeguarding sensitive information.

With user authentication, encrypted transit, and integrity checks, FTPS ensures secure and dependable file exchange. Unlike SFTP, FTPS aligns with traditional FTP commands, making integration simpler but requiring SSL/TLS setup. Valued by businesses and organizations, FTPS upholds data confidentiality, integrity, and availability during transfers, serving as a vital tool for secure internet communication.

WebDAV (Web Distributed Authoring and Versioning)

WebDAV (Web Distributed Authoring and Versioning) is an HTTP/1.1 protocol extension that enables collaborative file management and editing on a web server. It allows users to createmodify, and move files on a remote web server and control file permissions and versions.

WebDAV is a helpful resource for managing files on a web server from the standpoint of internet services. Businesses and organizations utilize it to collaborate on documentsmanage website content, and share files with clients and partners.

WebDAV's ease of usage is one of its primary advantages.

  • It can be accessed by the web browser or specialized software, making it accessible to people with varied degrees of technological proficiency.
  • In addition, WebDAV offers file locking, enabling several users to edit a file simultaneously without creating conflicts or overwriting one another's modifications.

WebDAV also supports versioning, allowing users to monitor the evolution of a file over time. This is useful for managing website content since it allows administrators to revert to a previous version of a file if necessary.

WebDAV has the potential disadvantage of being slower than alternative file transfer protocols, such as FTP and SFTP. In addition, some web servers may not support WebDAV, limiting its applicability in specific situations.

WebDAV is a beneficial Internet service for managing files on a web server and collaborating on documents. WebDAV enables enterprises to enhance collaboration, simplify content administration, and protect the integrity of their assets.

Instant Messaging (IM)

Instant Messaging (IM) is a real-time communication method that enables users to send and receive text messages and multimedia material, including photographs and videos, over the Internet or a computer network. IM can be used for both one-on-one and group conversations with several participants.

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Users install a client application on their device and connect to a server that runs the messaging service for instant messaging (IM) applications. Examples of classic IM programs include WhatsAppFacebook MessengerSkype, and Slack.

Instant messaging enables rapid and effective communication, with messages delivered instantly to the recipient's device. This makes it a popular communication method for personal and professional purposes. IM also enables the exchange of multimedia content, increasing communication and making it easier to explain complicated concepts.

In addition to file sharing, audio and video calls, and screen sharing, many IM software also allows a variety of other services. These characteristics can enhance user collaboration and make instant messaging a potent tool for remote work and virtual meetings.

IM's convenience and accessibility are one of its primary features. It allows users to send and receive messages from any location with an internet connection, making it a perfect communication tool for mobile use. IM is also less formal than e-mail and other modes of communication, making it easier to build relationships with coworkers and clients.

Yet, one of the primary downsides of IM is the possibility of distraction and interruption. Because messages are delivered instantly, users may feel compelled to answer immediately, which can be distracting and disruptive to their job.

Social Media

Social media provides various tools and platforms for users to connect, share information and content, and participate in conversations and discussions from the perspective of communication services.

Social media can be used for personal and professional communication, and it has become a vital part of the everyday lives of many individuals.

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The accessibility and reach of social media as a communication service are one of its primary advantages. Social media networks have billions of users, so material and messages can rapidly and easily reach a large audience. This can be particularly beneficial for businesses and organizations seeking to advertise their products or services and for individuals seeking to create their brand or network.

Social media platforms provide a variety of communication capabilities and tools, such as text-based messagingvideo and phone conversationslive streaming, and more. An additional benefit of social media is its adaptability and agility. Users can select the tools that best suit their requirements and tastes and transition between various kinds of communication based on the circumstance and context.

As a communication service, social media also has certain potential downsides. The sheer number of content and messages on social media might make it tough to sift through irrelevant information and locate what you're looking for. Concerns exist around the privacy and security of personal information on social media and the authenticity and dependability of information shared by other users.

Ultimately, social media is a complete communication service that provides users with several options and benefits.

Online Forums

Online forums, often known as message boards or discussion boards, allow users to engage in debates, share information and ideas, and interact. Public or private, online forums cover various topics and interests, from politics and current events to hobbies and specialized communities.

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Typically, online forums consist of several threads or discussion topics, with many user contributions to each. Users can create new threads, respond to current topics, and engage with other users via likesshares, and comments. Numerous online forums also have moderators or administrators that assist in managing the community and enforcing the rules and regulations.

Connecting with folks with similar interests or hobbies is one of the most significant benefits of online forums. People can share information and ideas, pose questions, and engage in substantive dialogues through online forums. In addition, they can be a great source of counsel and assistance, particularly for those experiencing difficult or stressful circumstances.

Businesses and organizations seeking to engage with customers or stakeholders may also find online forums beneficial. By engaging in online forums, businesses can obtain insight into client requirements and preferences, respond to feedback and criticism, and establish rapport with their audience.

But online forums can also have disadvantages. Online forums can attract trollsspammers, and other disruptive members due to their public nature. In addition, it can be challenging to weed out unnecessary or misleading information, and there is a risk that misinformation and fake news will propagate on online forums.


Blogging is a popular form of online communication that involves creating and publishing written content on a website or blog platform. From the perspective of communication services, blogging offers numerous advantages to individuals and organizations.

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Blogging offers individuals a forum for self-expression and exchanging ideasexperiences, and opinions. By generating and posting blog entries, individuals may establish themselves as thought leaders and subject matter experts, cultivate a readership of like-minded individuals, and interact with their audience via comments and social media.

Blogging may be an effective marketing technique for organizations to increase brand awarenessgenerate leads, and drive website traffic. Businesses can attract and engage new consumers, position themselves as industry experts, and enhance their search engine rankings by providing high-quality, informative blog content.

In addition to written information, many bloggers use photographsvideos, and infographics in their blog entries. This can boost the content's shareability on social media and other online platforms by making it more exciting and visually appealing.

Yet, blogging has potential disadvantages from a communication services standpoint. Blogs are susceptible to harsh commentstrolling, and other forms of online abuse due to their public nature. In a crowded blogosphere, it can be tough to stand out, and creating a following and increasing traffic can be time-consuming and difficult.


Podcasting is a popular form of online communication that involves creating and publishing audio content in episodes, which users can download and listen to on their computer or mobile device. From the perspective of communication services, podcasting offers numerous advantages to individuals and organizations.

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Anyone can express themselves and share their ideasstories, and opinions through podcasting. Individuals can establish themselves as experts or thought leaders in their profession, connect with like-minded listeners, and interact with their audience by making and releasing podcast episodes.

Podcasting may be a potent marketing tool for organizations to increase brand awarenessgenerate leads, and establish thought leadership. Businesses may attract and engage new consumers, position themselves as industry experts, and increase traffic to their websites and other online platforms by generating high-quality, instructive podcast content.

In addition to audio content, many podcasts include musicsound effects, and interviews with special guests. This can boost the content's shareability on social media and other online platforms by making it more engaging and active.

Yet, there are possible disadvantages to podcasting from a communication services standpoint. Developing a following and expanding your audience may be time-consuming and challenging, and standing out in a competitive podcast business can be difficult. In addition, producing high-quality audio content can necessitate a substantial expenditure of time, equipment, and other resources.

SMS (Short Message Service)

SMS (Short Message Service) is a text messaging service primarily used on mobile devices but is also utilized as a communication service over the internet. From the perspective of internet communication services, SMS offers a quick and convenient means to send and receive short text messages.

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Mobile devices extensively support SMS and may be used to interact with people worldwide. This is one of the primary advantages of using SMS as an internet communication service. This makes it a popular option for businesses and organizations that need to communicate with consumers or staff in multiple locations.

SMS can also be combined with other internet communication services like e-mail and social media to build a more comprehensive communication strategy. For instance, firms can use SMS to send clients reminders or promotional offers, e-mail or social media to provide additional information, or website links.

As an online communication tool, SMS is also advantageous because it is simple and inexpensive.

  • Several online services and software platforms include or offer SMS messaging as an add-on.
  • Numerous third-party SMS providers provide API interfaces and other tools to help organizations and developers manage and automate SMS messaging.

Yet, similar to other online communication services, SMS has several potential disadvantages. 

  • Because SMS messages are limited to 160 characters, conveying complex information or providing detailed instructions can be challenging.
  • Additionally, SMS messages are often limited in formatting and design, thus creating visually appealing or branded messages challenging.
  • In addition, because SMS messages are often transmitted directly to mobile devices, managing and analyzing message delivery and engagement can be more challenging than other internet communication services like e-mail and social media.

Online chat

Online chat is the real-time exchange of text messages between two or more individuals via the Internet. Online chat is typically conducted through dedicated chat platforms, messaging apps, or social media platforms.

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Online chat provides a quick and convenient option for individuals and organizations to connect in real time from the perspective of communication services. There are numerous applications for online chat, including customer servicesales, and team collaboration.

Online chat may be a valuable tool for businesses to engage with clients and provide personalized service. Several organizations employ chatbots or live chat agents to give real-time assistanceanswer questions, and resolve client issues. Moreover, online chat can be utilized to collect client feedbackrun surveys, and generate leads.

Online chat can also be valuable for team collaboration and productivity. Several organizations use chat platforms to ease communication between team members, share files and information, and manage projects and activities. Internet chat can be especially valuable for remote teams or teams operating in various time zones, as it provides a way to collaborate successfully regardless of location.

However, online chat also has potential drawbacks from a communication services perspective. Text messages can make it challenging to convey tone and context, leading to misunderstandings and misinterpretation. However, online chat can be distracting or irritating, especially when users get many messages or notifications.

USENET(User Network)

USENET is a decentralized network of discussion groups called newsgroups created in the late 1970s. It was one of the earliest means of online communication, and some individuals continue to use it today.

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Users can submit messages and respond to posts inside a given newsgroup, grouped by topic. Messages can contain textphotos, and attachments. Unlike contemporary social networking platforms, USENET is primarily text-based and lacks functionality such as likesshares, and comments.

USENET was initially created so researchers could share information and cooperate on projects. Over time, its use for general debates on various issues, such as science, technology, politics, and entertainment, has increased.

A distinguishing characteristic of USENET is that it is a decentralized network with no central server or network owner. Instead, newsgroups are hosted on servers run by individuals and organizations from all over the globe. This decentralized nature indicates that USENET is generally uncontrolled and free from government and corporate influence.


Newsgroups, also called Usenet newsgroups, are discussion forums on the Usenet network. Usenet newsgroups are comparable to online forums, except they predate the World Wide Web and are maintained on a decentralized network of servers rather than a single website.

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Using newsreader software that retrieves and transmits messages across the Usenet network, users can read and post to newsgroups. Usenet newsgroups are arranged into hierarchies depending on the topic or subject matter. Each newsgroup has a unique name that often includes a series of phrases separated by periods that indicate its place within the hierarchy.

Each newsgroup comprises discussions on a specific subject, as indicated by its name. Using newsreader software, users can browsefollow, and comment on the newsgroup's posts. 

Newsgroups cover various topics, from technical discussions to hobbies, news, politics, and more. Some popular newsgroups include comp.* (for computer-related discussions), rec.* (for recreational discussions), sci.* (for scientific discussions), and alt.* (for alternative discussions).

Internet Relay Chat (IRC)

Internet Relay Chat (IRC) is a text-based, real-time chat protocol created in the late 1980s. It enables users to speak in real-time through chat rooms, also known as channels, grouped by topic.

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IRC is an open protocol. Thus anybody can construct and host an IRC server, and anyone with an IRC client can connect to these servers and participate in chat rooms. This has resulted in a decentralized network of IRC servers and chat rooms that anyone with an internet connection can access.

IRC is mainly text-based, but it also supports file transfers, voice chat, and in some situations, even video chat. It is frequently used for group communication in online communities, tech assistance, and online gaming.

IRC employs a client-server architecture in which users connect to a server using an IRC client. Once linked, users can join existing channels or establish new ones. The names of channels are preceded by the symbol "#" (e.g., #technology).

IRC's ability to allow users to design and run their bots, which can perform automated functions such as regulating channels or giving information, is one of its distinguishing characteristics. IRC bots can be built in various programming languages and can be tailored to match the specific requirements of a community or channel.

IRC's popularity has fallen in recent years, although it is still used by some online groups and is considered a predecessor to modern chat services such as Slack and Discord.


Telnet is a protocol that enables users to connect to and operate remote machines across a network, often the internet. It was created in the early 1970s and is still utilized in some circumstances today.

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Telnet connects two computers, one acting as the client and the other as the server. After establishing a connection, the client computer can transmit commands and input to the server computer, and the server computer will send responses back to the client computer.

Telnet serves the same fundamental function as the TCP/IP Telnet protocol: remote login to another system through its command-line interface.

Web Telnet is a protocol based on HTTP. Hence it operates on top of the TCP/IP protocol.

Telnet was conceived as a method for people to access remote computers and mainframes. Still, it has been overtaken mainly by more secure protocols such as SSH (Secure Shell) and remote desktop software.

The fact that Telnet sends data, including login passwords, in plain text is one of its primary constraints. This means anyone competent to intercept the conversation can intercept and read any data sent over Telnet. As a result, Telnet is regarded as an insecure protocol and is not advised for usage on insecure networks such as the Internet.

Although Telnet is no longer routinely used for remote access, it is sometimes utilized for testing and debugging network services and protocols. Occasionally, it is also used to access legacy systems that do not support more advanced remote access protocols.

LISTSERV(List Server)

LISTSERV(List Server) is a software program that provides management services for email-based discussion lists. While employed at the University of Tennessee, Eric Thomas designed the initial LISTSERV software package in the late 1980s.

LISTSERV enables users to establish and manage e-mail discussion lists for online communities, academic research, and corporate communication applications. Members of a discussion list can send messages to the list, which are then circulated to all other members.

LISTSERV supports threaded conversationsmessage archiving, and automatic list management, including subscription and unsubscription management, to facilitate email-based communication. LISTSERV also provides list moderation, enabling list owners or moderators to approve or reject messages before their distribution to the list.

LISTSERV is widely employed in academic and research institutionscompanies, and non-profit organizations. It is a popular tool for supporting email-based discussions, and its dependability and scalability are well-known.

LISTSERV has been upgraded over the years to incorporate new capabilities, such as support for web-based administration and list management and connectivity with other tools and platforms. Currently, LISTSERV continues to be a popular email-based discussion list management technology that several companies across the globe utilize.

Electronic Fax (E-FAX)

Electronic Fax (E-FAX) is a technology that enables users to send and receive faxes via the internet instead of a physical fax machine and a phone line. E-FAX is occasionally also known as internet faxonline fax, and digital fax.

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E-FAX uses a digital document format, such as PDF or TIFF, and standard e-mail protocols to transmit the document online. E-FAXes can be sent through a computer or mobile device, and users can receive them in their e-mail inboxes.

Typically, E-FAX services provide users with a dedicated fax number to send and receive faxes. Some E-FAX providers offer extra capabilities, such as signing and annotating documents or transmitting faxes to multiple recipients simultaneously.

One of the main advantages of E-FAX is that it eliminates the need for a physical fax machine and a dedicated phone line. This can save people and organizations money on equipment, maintenance expenditures, and long-distance and international fax fees.

E-FAX is also more convenient and versatile than traditional faxing techniques since users can send and receive faxes from anywhere with an internet connection. They can save and manage digital copies of their faxes with ease.

E-FAX is a cost-effective and efficient alternative to traditional faxing methods, and businesses and people are rapidly adopting it to optimize their communication workflows.

Directory Services

Directory Services is a network service that provides a centralized database of information on network resources, such as usersgroupscomputersprinters, and other devices. Directory services help administrators manage network resources more efficiently and securely by providing a central repository for storing and retrieving information about network resources.

It is a collection of software that maintains information about your organization, its clients, or both. 

A directory service offers users and administrators transparent access to all network printers, servers, and other devices. These services are responsible for mapping network resource names to network addresses. 

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Active Directory, created by Microsoft for Windows-based networks, is one of the most recognizable directory services. Active Directory is utilized to manage user accountsgroup policies, and network resources, and it offers a centralized authentication and authorization mechanism for network resources.

Some well-known directory services include -

  • LDAP (Lightweight Directory Access Protocol) is a standard for accessing and maintaining directory information. It allows users to engage with other directory service servers and is a cross-platform authentication protocol for directory services.
  • Novell Directory Services (NDS) is utilized in Novell's NetWare network operating system. Initially developed for NetWare networks, it has since been extended to support other operating systems, including Windows and Linux. NDS has been superseded by Novell's eDirectory, which provides enhanced scalability and support for newer technologies. It uses a hierarchical structure known as a tree, consisting of a root object and a series of subordinate objects representing network resources. Each object in the tree has a unique name and a set of attributes that describe its characteristics.

Directory services are essential to modern network infrastructures used in various environments, including corporate networks, government agencies, and educational institutions.

Network Management Services

Network management services are tools and technologies that monitor, control and optimize computer networks. Network administrators and IT experts often utilize these services to verify that networks operate smoothly and efficiently and resolve potential problems.

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Examples of typical network management services include -

  • Network monitoring tools: These tools monitor network traffic, track performance indicators, and discover potential faults before they become significant problems. NagiosPRTG Network Monitor, and SolarWinds Network Performance Monitor are examples of network monitoring tools.
  • Configuration management tools: Configuration management tools are used to automate the configuration and management of network devices and applications. Examples of configuration management tools include AnsiblePuppet, and Chef.
  • Performance management tools: These tools optimize network performance by discovering and addressing bottlenecks and other performance issues. Examples of performance management tools include Riverbed SteelCentralNetScout nGeniusONE, and Cisco Prime.
  • Security management tools: The purpose of security management tools is to safeguard networks against unauthorized access, malware, and other security risks. Examples of security management tools include firewallsintrusion detection and prevention systems (IDPS), and security information and event management (SIEM) platforms.

Here are a few examples of network management services-related commands that network administrators and IT professionals commonly use:

  1. Ping: The ping command tests the connectivity between two devices on a network. It sends a packet of data to a specified IP address or hostname and measures the response time. For example, "ping" will send a packet of data to the Google website and report the response time.
  2. Traceroute: The traceroute command traces the path packets take from one device to another on a network. It sends packets of data with increasing time-to-live values to each router along the way and reports the round-trip time for each packet. For example, "traceroute" will show the path packets take from your device to the Google website.
  3. Netstat: The netstat command displays information about network connections and open ports on a device. It can be used to diagnose network issues and identify potential security threats. For example, "netstat -a" will show all active network connections on a device.
  4. Ipconfig: The ipconfig command is used to display information about the IP configuration of a device, including the IP addresssubnet mask, and default gateway. For example, "ipconfig /all" will show detailed information about the IP configuration of a Windows device.
  5. Nslookup: The nslookup command is used to query the DNS server for information about a specific hostname or IP address. It can be used to troubleshoot DNS issues and verify DNS records. For example, "nslookup" will show the IP address associated with the Google website.

Network management services are necessary for guaranteeing computer networks' dependability, performance, and security and are a vital component of the current IT architecture.

Time Services

Time services refer to the mechanisms synchronizing time between devices connected to a network. Precise time synchronization is essential for various reasons, including loggingtroubleshooting, and ensuring that all network devices operate simultaneously.

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Following are some types of Time Services -

  1. Network Time Protocol (NTP)
  2. Simple Network Time Protocol (SNTP)
  3. Daytime Protocol (DAYTIME)

Let's take a brief look into each of them -

Network Time Protocol (NTP)

Network Time Protocol (NTP) is the most popular protocol for computer network time synchronization. This protocol allows computers to synchronize their clocks via the Internet and other network connections. 

NTP can be used to synchronize clocks on a local network or to synchronize a computer's time with an Internet-based time server.

Simple Network Time Protocol(SNTP)

SNTP is the Simple Network Time Protocol. This protocol is used to synchronize network hardware to time. When a comprehensive implementation of NTP is not required, this reduced version of NTP is generally employed.

Daytime Protocol (DAYTIME)

The Daytime Protocol (DAYTIME) is a simple protocol that provides the time of day as a plain text string. It is a lightweight alternative to the Network Time Protocol (NTP) and is mainly used for testing and debugging purposes. The DAYTIME protocol runs on UDP port 13 and does not require any authentication or encryption.

Data Retrieval Services

Data retrieval services are the mechanisms to search, retrieve, and access data stored in databases or other data repositories. These services are essential for retrieving specific information from large datasets or repositories and making this data available to end-users in a useful format.

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Some examples of data retrieval services include:

  1. Search engines like Google and Bing provide a way to search and retrieve information from the internet.
  2. Online databases like PubMed and Medline allow users to search for research articles and other scientific publications.
  3. Online marketplaces like Amazon and eBay allow users to search for and purchase products online.
  4. Content delivery networks (CDNs) allow users to access and retrieve content from websites like, etc., faster by caching content in servers located closer to the user.

The example sites above are like a computer-based system on the Internet for searching and spotting data in a database, file, or another source.

Generally, a web browser is used to obtain information from the Internet. A print or computer-based information retrieval system looks for and locates information in a file, database, or other data collection.

These services are essential for businesses, organizations, and individuals that rely on access to large amounts of data to make informed decisions or to provide services to their customers.

World Wide Web

The World Wide Web (WWW or simply the Web) is a global information system that allows users to access and share information and multimedia content over the internet using a web browser. Sir Tim Berners-Lee invented it in 1989 while working at CERN, a European nuclear research organization.

internet - world wide web

From an internet services point of view, the World Wide Web (WWW) is a client-server model which allows users to access and share information over the internet using standardized protocols such as HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol). These resources are distinguished by a Universal Resource Locator (URL) that specifies the location of the resource on the Web.

Web browsers, such as Google ChromeMozilla Firefox, and Microsoft Edge, allow users to access and view web pages by sending HTTP requests to web servers, which respond with HTML (Hypertext Markup Language) code that is rendered into the graphical user interface seen by the user.

In addition to HTTP, WWW uses other internet protocols, such as HTML for page structure, CSS (Cascading Style Sheets) for page styling, and JavaScript for dynamic page behavior.

The World Wide Web has become a vital element of contemporary life and is utilized for numerous reasons, including:

  1. Information sharing: The Web provides a platform for individuals and organizations to share information globally. This includes everything from news and current events to educational resources and scientific research.
  2. E-commerce: The Web is also used for conducting business transactions online, such as buying and selling goods and services, making payments, and managing customer relationships.
  3. Social networking: The Web has given rise to social networking platforms, which allow users to connect and share information, photos, and other content.
  4. Entertainment: The Web is also a popular source of entertainment, providing access to music, videos, games, and other multimedia content.

E-commerce (Online Shopping)

E-commerce, also known as online shopping or electronic commerce, refers to buying and selling goods and services over the internet. With the growth of the internet and the popularity of online shopping, many companies have built an online presence to reach a larger audience and enhance sales.

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Online shopping allows people to buy from the comfort of their homes, access a greater variety of products and services, compare costs, and take advantage of special deals and promotions. On the other hand, such businesses may access a global audience, cut their overhead costs, and give clients a convenient and fast purchasing experience.

E-commerce platforms often include a secure payment system and a delivery service to ensure clients receive their products promptly and securely. Among the most popular e-commerce sites are AmazoneBay, and Alibaba.

Web services

Web services are a collection of technologies, protocols, and standards for exchanging data and information between applications and systems over the internet. The primary objective of web services is to facilitate interoperability and communication between various applications and platforms.

Web services utilize a standard communication protocol, such as SOAP (Simple Object Access Protocol)REST (Representational State Transfer), or XML-RPC (XML Remote Procedure Call), to send and receive data over the internet.

Web services can provide vast capabilities like data exchange, service orchestration, and business process automation. They are commonly utilized in e-commerce, mobile applications, and enterprise systems to enable communication and data exchange between disparate platforms and systems.

It is possible to provide web services using Utility Computing. In utility computing, web services can provide on-demand access to computing resources, such as processing power, storage, and network bandwidth. For example, a cloud computing provider may offer a web service allowing developers to provision and manage virtual servers on their infrastructure dynamically.

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Among the most popular web services are the Google Maps APIAmazon Web Services (AWS)PayPal, and Twilio for messaging and voice services.

Automatic Network Address Configuration (ANAC)

Automatic Network Address Configuration (ANAC) is a protocol that dynamically assigns IP addresses to network devices without requiring manual configuration. ANAC enables a device to automatically obtain an IP address and other network configuration information from a network server, typically a Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) server.

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ANAC simplifies network administration and makes managing large networks with numerous devices easier. It eliminates the need for time-consuming and error-prone manual configuration of IP addresses on each device.

Here is how ANAC works -

  • Every system on a network is assigned a unique IP address through Automatic Network Addressing
  • A device requests network configuration information to a DHCP server on the network for ANAC to function. 
  • The server responds with an IP address and additional configuration information, such as the subnet mask and default gateway, that the device can use to configure its network settings automatically.

ANAC is widely utilized in enterprise networks and home and small office networks.

Search Engines

Search engines are online tools that enable users to search the Internet for information by entering keywords or phrases. They use web crawlers or spiders to index web pages based on their content.

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When a user enters a search query, the search engine applies its algorithms to its index and returns a list of results that match the query.

Search engines have become an integral Internet component, making locating the desired information easier. GoogleBingYahoo, and Baidu are four of the most popular search engines. Some search engines provide results for imagesvideosnews articles, and other forms of content in addition to web pages.

Remote desktop software

Remote desktop software is a technology that enables users to access and control a computer or device remotely. This is beneficial for a variety of purposes -

  • accessing files and apps from a remote location,
  • giving technical support to a person who is not physically there, and
  • collaborating on a project with team members who are geographically dispersed.

There are numerous possibilities for remote desktop software, ranging from commercial packages to free and open-source solutions. TeamViewerAnyDeskLogMeIn, and Microsoft Remote Desktop are a few of the most popular alternatives.

Remote desktop software generally functions by creating a connection between the user's local computer and the distant computer or device. This connection can be established through a variety of protocols, such as Remote Desktop Protocol (RDP)Virtual Network Computing (VNC), or Secure Shell (SSH).

Once the connection has been established, the user can -

  • Interact with the remote desktop using their mouse, keyboard, and other input devices as if they were physically present.
  • The user may also be able to transfer files, share screens with other users, or access other advanced services, depending on the software employed.

Remote desktop software is a valuable internet service enabling users to access and operate devices remotely. It is necessary for many enterprises and individuals working with computers and technology.

Cloud Computing

Cloud computing is a model for providing on-demand Internet-based computing services. It permits users to access computing resources such as serversstoragedatabases, and software applications without directly managing them. The cloud service provider maintains the infrastructure, and users with an internet connection can access these resources from anywhere, at any time.

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Cloud computing can be divided into three distinct models:

  1. Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS): This is the most fundamental cloud computing model, providing users access to virtual machinesstorage, and networking. On top of this infrastructure, users can install any desired software, making it highly customizable and adaptable.
  2. Platform as a Service (PaaS): This model provides users with a platform to develop, run, and manage their applications without requiring them to manage the underlying infrastructure. The cloud service provider handles the operating system, servers, and storage, allowing users to focus on application development.
  3. Software as a Service (SaaS): This model gives users access to software applications over the internet without the need to install them locally. Users can access these applications from any internet-connected device, making them highly flexible.
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The benefits of cloud computing include the following - 

  • cost savings, 
  • scalability, 
  • dependability, 
  • and increased productivity.

It has transformed how organizations operate and is now an integral part of the contemporary IT landscape.

Online Gaming

Online gaming refers to playing video games over the internet, enabling players to interact with other players from around the world. With the growth of broadband internet access, which enables faster and more reliable connections, and the widespread availability of gaming platforms, such as PCsgaming consoles, and mobile devices, online gaming has become increasingly popular.

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Online gaming can be played solo or in multiplayer modes, with players able to compete against one another or collaborate to accomplish goals. The genres of online gaming have expanded to include first-person shootersreal-time strategy gamesmassively multiplayer online role-playing games (MMORPGs), and sports simulations, among many others.

Gaming companies typically provide online gaming services by hosting games on dedicated servers and providing matchmaking and other online services. Platforms for online gaming may also offer social networking capabilities, allowing players to connect with friends and form online communities.

Online Banking

The services offered by financial institutions over the internet are called online banking. These services enable customers to conduct various banking transactions from the convenience of their home or office without visiting a physical branch. 

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Typical online banking services include account management (viewing account balances, transferring funds between accounts, and paying bills), online statementscheck deposits, and loan applications. Online banking services also provide budget tracking toolsfinancial planning resources, and fraud prevention measures.

The increasing popularity of online banking is due to its convenience and accessibility. With an internet connection, customers can access their accounts and conduct transactions from any location. 

However, security concerns such as identity theft and online fraud continue to be a challenge for online banking services; consequently, financial institutions have implemented stringent security measures to protect the information and transactions of their customers.

Online Education (E-learning)

E-learning, also known as online education, delivers educational materials and instruction via the internet and other digital technologies. There are numerous forms of online education, ranging from simple online courses to fully accredited degree programs.

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Flexibility is one of the primary advantages of online education. Students can access course materials and participate in discussions according to their own pace and schedule. This is especially useful for adult students balancing their studies with work and other obligations.

Online education can be less expensive than traditional classroom education. Many online courses and programs have lower tuition costs than their on-campus counterparts, and students frequently save money on transportation, housing, and other costs.

However, online education is not without its difficulties. It requires much self-motivation and self-discipline, one of the most significant obstacles. Without the structure and support of a conventional classroom, some students may find it challenging to maintain focus and engagement.

Online education has become an increasingly significant component of the educational landscape, providing students with new learning and development opportunities.

Some examples of E-learning websites are UdemyCoursera, etc.

Some Frequently Asked Questions -

What is SSH (Secure Shell)?

Secure Shell, or SSH, is a cryptographic network protocol that connects to and communicates with distant servers over an unsecured network. It offers a safe method for connecting to a remote server, executing commands on the server, and transferring files between the client and server.

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SSH is an essential technology for controlling and administering remote servers from the perspective of internet services. It enables system administrators and other authorized users to access and administer servers securely from any place without requiring physical access to the server itself.

SSH's ability to encrypt all data passed between the client and server, including login passwordsinstructions, and data transfers, is one of its defining characteristics. This ensures high security and protects sensitive data from interception and unwanted access.

SSH also supports public key authentication, which is a significant feature. This enables users to produce public and private key pairs, which may be used to authenticate with distant services instead of passwords. Public key authentication is more secure than password-based authentication since it is less vulnerable to brute-force attacks and password guessing.

SSH is an essential Internet service for administering and securing remote servers and is widely used by system administratorsdevelopers, and other server and network professionals. It has contributed to the expansion and evolution of the internet by providing a secure and dependable method for managing and administering remote systems.

What is Remote Desktop Protocol (RDP)?

Remote Desktop Protocol (RDP) is a proprietary protocol developed by Microsoft for remote access and control of Windows-based computers over a network connection.

Using RDP, users may remotely view and interact with a computer's desktop environment as if sitting in front of it. This is handy for accessing files and apps on a remote computer, giving technical support, and interacting with geographically dispersed team members.

RDP is widely utilized and supported by numerous software applications, including Microsoft's Remote Desktop Services and Remote Desktop Connection programs.

Services provided by the Internet - FI


Happy Coding.

About the Author

This article was authored by Rawnak.